this is a very long article but worth a read it you are fighting this
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) or Lupus is a chronic, autoimmune disease as as a result of the development of autoantibodies that attack the systems and organs in the body.researchers at the indicated that saturated fatty acid palmitate, but not unsaturated oleate, induces the activation of the NLRP3-ASC inflammasome, causing caspase-1, IL-1β and IL-18 production.
Lupus cerebritis is a disorder of nervous system problems (an autoimmune inflammatory disorder) caused by lupus as as a result of the development of autoantibodies that attack the systems and organs in the body. It causes migraine headache, if the duration of the central nervous system involvement last for a few minutes, or causes dementia that can lead to neurological deficits as a transient attacks or permanently.
Common symptoms include
1. Slurred speech
3. Nausea and dizziness
4. Visual disturbances
5. Mood changes
6. Memory loss
8. Headaches, depression, anxiety
10. However, symptoms of cerebritis in some cases can evolve and worsen quickly as patients may develop severe and life-threatening conditions including stroke and heart-related death-causing diseases.
Cerebritis can be caused by an infection due to bacteria, viruses invasion and pathogens invasion into
the brain through the sinuses or as a result of trauma
Research at the Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, published in the April 6 issue of the American Journal of Human Genetics describes three lupus genes discovered by OMRF researchers as part of a massive international collaboration, by Using samples from a wide range of ethnic backgrounds, scientists found the genes IRF8 and TMEM39a were associated with lupus in European-American, African-American, Gullah and Asian patients. A third gene named IKZF3 was only significant in African-American and European-American samples.”Identifying and characterizing these genetic risk factors in lupus will undoubtedly lead to improved diagnostics and therapeutics for this complex disease,” said senior author and OMRF scientist Kathy Moser, Ph.D.(18)
2. Klebsiella pneumoniae
Klebsiella pneumoniae is defined as a form of bacterial pneumonia associated with Klebsiella pneumoniae. In a report of a case of Klebsiella cerebritis in an adult patient with a proven extracranial focus of infection, researchers suggested considering cerebritis as a differential diagnosis for altered level of consciousness in patients of severe sepsis, even if an extracranial source of infection is proven.(2)
3. Autoimmune system dysfunction
Some researchers found that the interactions between elevations of serum prolactin (PRL),cytoquines, autoantibodies and organ involvement suggest that PRL participates in local and generalized immune and inflammatory processes and acts as a bridge between the neuroendocrine andimmune systems in SLE. Understanding the interactions between these systems in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), will help us to understand and treat this important autoimmune disease(3)
. Elevations of serum prolactin (PRL)
In a study of conducted by Centro Medico Nacional La Raza, showed that elevated PRL and interleukin (IL)-6 have been found in the urine of patients with active lupus nephritis and in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with active central nervous system (CNS) SLE. PRL may therefore participate in the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis and cerebritis, and the presence of PRL may reflect an abnormal communication between the immune system and the neuroendocrine system in active SLE. Lymphocytes from patients with active SLE produce increased amounts of PRL, and this extrapituitary PRL may participate in aberrant immune processes in SLE.(3)
Cytoquines is a small protein released by cells that has a specific effect on the interactions between cells, on communications between cell, or on the behavior of cells. There a report that the final mechanism of lupus cerebritis involves the cytokines. The cytokines trigger edema, endothelial thickening, and infiltration of neutrophils in brain tissue. Two cytokines, interferon alpha and interleukin-6, have been found in the CSF of SLE patients with psychosis(4)
In the study to investigate the possibility that idiotypes (Ids) defined on anti-double stranded DNA (dsDNA) antibodies during active and inactive stages of lupus (1/84 Id and 4/90 Id, respectively) were expressed on anti-DNA antibodies during a subsequent active period (9/90) of the disease, researchers at the St. Luke’s Hospital showed that they are of related clonal origin. The present study suggests the idiotypic heterogeneity of anti-DNA antibodies and the shift of antigen specificity within an idiotypically related anti-DNA population during exacerbation of the disease.(7)
 Organ involvement
In the report there are few data on the relationship between the onset of new organ involvement and lupus serologies, especially in children, found that in managing two children with lupus nephritis, both developed life-threatening extrarenal complications (cerebritis and carditis) soon after receiving high-dose immunosuppressive therapy and despite normalizing serologies. This lack of concordance between serologies and the development of carditis and cerebritis needs to be recognized so that health care professionals treating children with SLE can promptly intensify immunosuppressive medications and avoid life-threatening delays from seeking alternative explanations for symptomatology.(5)
. Interleukin (IL)-6
Interleukin (IL)-6 secreted by T cells and macrophages to stimulate immune response has the function to act both a pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine.[see Cytoquines]
. DNA and anti-DNA complexes
Circulating immune complexes, consist of DNA and anti-DNA, cause an inflammatory response as well as a disruption of the blood-brain barrier. There is a report that the number of patients with the SLE manifestations was not higher in the group with the high amount of DNA in immune complexes. Elevated levels of DNA in immune complexes was found only in sera of SLE patients with the active, as well as quiescent form, of the disease and not in sera of healthy donors. The presence of increased amounts of DNA antigen in circulating immune complexes could indicate the presence of SLE pathology even if no manifestations of SLE are found.(6)
C. risk factors
1. Ultraviolet light
exposure to ultraviolet light increases the risk of as it can exacerbate lupus by modulation of the immune system at the level of the skin. It has also been found that ultraviolet light can lead to the formation of antinuclear antibodies.(8)
2. Pegylated interferon therapy
People who are in treatment with receiving pegylated interferon monotherapy may increase the risk of Lupus activation with cerebritis(9)
3. Gene mutation
An international team of researchers led by Chaim O. Jacob, associate professor of medicine and microbiology & immunology at the Keck School of Medicine of USC, has identified a gene mutation involved in causing lupus, a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the skin, joints and organs, posted in the Dec. 26 online edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.(19)
4. Other risk factors
Risk factors were more present in bacterial infections of the nervous system and cerebrit than in virus infection of CNS. In virus infections of the CNS, 28% of patients had some risk factor, most often-chronic ethylism, diabetes mellitus and acquired heart diseases. In bacterial infections of the CNS, 64% of patients had some predisposed factor. The most frequent factor of risk in these patients were chronic otitis (21.6%) and cranio-trauma (14.4%). In cerebritis, risk factors were present in 76% of patients and they were: sepsis (20%), chronic otitis (12%) and systemic lupuserythematosus (8%).(10)
There is no specific standard for the diagnosis, bur some researchers suggested
1. Serologic tests
Is the test to measure the levels of specific antibodies in a patient’s blood, the test is essential as the antinuclear antibody (ANA) titer is positive in virtually all patients with this disorder, but some researchers showed that serologic tests are helpful in establishing the diagnosis of SLE and predicting disease flares. However, there are few data on the relationship between the onset of new organ involvement and lupus serologies, especially in children.(11)
2. Electroencephalography (EEG)
Electroencephalography (EEG) is to record the measurement of voltage fluctuations resulting from ionic current flows within the neurons of the brain. In a report of a 13-year-old girl with a known diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus presented with seizures and psychosis. An electroencephalogram (EEG) revealed continuous, non-evolving periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges (PLEDs) in the left temporal region, which did not resolve with benzodiazepine. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain scan demonstrated a focal hyperintensity in the left medial temporal and left occipital lobes, left thalamus and bilateral cerebellar white matter, with evidence of vasculitis in the magnetic resonance angiography. Intravenous immunoglobulin was given because of failed steroid therapy, which resulted in a full resolution of clinical, EEG and MRI abnormalities. Lupus cerebritisshould be considered as a possible aetiology in (Focal (Nonepileptic) Abnormalities on EEG) PLEDs, and immunoglobulin can be effective in neuropsychiatric lupus.(14)
3. Computed tomography (CT scans)
In the study of thirty-four patients from the Jackson Memorial Hospital and Miami Veterans Administration Medical Center complex with 4 or more ARA criteria for SLE had CT of the brain. Of these patients with SLE, 14 had clinical features of cerebritis and 20 without cerebritis on longterm steroid therapy served as controls. Clinical examinations were performed by 1 of our group (NG). The CT of the brain was independently read by 2 neuroradiologists (SO and RQ), whose only knowledge of the patients was their age, sex and the diagnosis of SLE, showed that some abnormality of the brain by CT was present in 11/14 patients during their 1st attack of SLE cerebritis. At the initial presentation with SLE cerebritis, 9 of 14 patients had marked cortical atrophy by CT and 2 had minimal cortical atrophy. At that time, a normal CT was found on 3 patients with SLE cerebritis. Two of these patients were on 30 and 40 mg prednisone at the time of the normal CT. The 3rd had been on corticosteroids previously but not in 4 months prior to the normal CT. Corticosteroids were administered in all 3 patients and after remission and reexacerbation of SLE cerebritis, repeat CT demonstrated development of marked cortical atrophy in 2 of these patients and minimal cortical atrophy in the other. The role of corticosteroids in their cortical atrophy is unclear.(12)
4. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
Most systemic lupus erythematosus patients having central nervous system involvement tend to have abnormal MRI scans, as cerebral edema that can occur due to cerebritis can be effectively identified by MRI scan(13)
A. What to avoid
Any thing which cause inflammation must be avoid. thyere is a report found that SLE patients and lupus-prone mice induces skin inflammation following intradermal injection into normal mice. Lupus serum depleted of IgG failed to cause skin inflammation(36). including
Refined sugar with high glycemic values cause fluctuation of insulin levels and put the immune system on high alert. In the evaluation of one hundred and eleven serum samples were assayed from patients with Graves’ disease, primary hypothyroidism, chronic autoimmune thyroiditis, Addison’s disease, chronic autoimmune hepatitis, pernicious anemia, lupus erythematosus, and rheumatoid arthritis, together with 45 serum samples from normal subjects, conducted by Clinic of Endocrinology, University La Sapienza, showed that contrary to expectation anti-immunoglobulin antibodies are not associated with non-diabetes-related autoimmune diseases, increased humoral immunoresponsiveness to endogenous insulin appears to be related to autoimmunity in general rather than restricted to Type I diabetes.(33)
2. Saturated and trans fat
Saturated fat and trans fat trigger and stimulate the immune system’s inflammatory response. In the study of Fatty acid–induced NLRP3-ASC inflammasome activation interferes with insulin signaling, Dr. Haitao Wen, and the team indicated that High-fat diet (HFD) and inflammation are key contributors to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Interleukin (IL)-1β plays a role in insulin resistance, yet how IL-1β is induced by the fatty acids in an HFD, and how this alters insulin signaling, is unclear. We show that the saturated fatty acid palmitate, but not unsaturated oleate, induces the activation of the NLRP3-ASC inflammasome(34)
3. Diary products
Diary products can cause allerdic effect that lead to the production immunoglobulin E antibodies, histamine, etc., causing immune system malfunction.
4. Process foods
In an article of Inflammatory Foods, Consider avoiding to achieve Natural remission in RA, the author wrote “often times people reduce the intake of inflammatory foods but fail to recognize all the hidden places, generally in processed foods, that these foods are being consumed. Many arthritic symptoms are triggered by allergies” (35) that can lead to inflammation.
5. Smoking and alcohol
In the assessment of whether smoking or alcohol consumption is associated with lupus erythematosus (LE), conducted by Place de l’hôpital, Dr. Boeckler P and the team showed that cigarette smoking is associated with LE, but alcohol consumption is not. The risk conferred by cigarette smoking seems highest in patients who meet fewer than 4 ACR criteria and/or who do not have antinuclear DNA antibodies(37)
6. Refined products
Refined grains pattern was positively related to sICAM-1 (P for trend = 0.007)(38)
7. Artificial ingredients
There is a report that scientists disagree about the relationships between sweeteners and lymphomas, leukemias, cancers of the bladder and brain, chronic fatigue syndrome, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis, autism, and systemic lupus.(39)
8. Allergic effects
Allergic effect can increase the risk of the development of lupus as a result of inflammation caused by immune system malfunction.
B. Diet against Lupus
1. Deep see fish (such as Salmon)(24)
In the research of the antioxidant effect of vitamin E after ingestion of salmon found that that megadoses of vitamin E, far from having pro-oxidative activity, actually increase the anti-oxidative capacity of the liver, especially after ingestion of salmon oil, according to “Effects of megadoses of dietary vitamin E on the antioxidant status of rats fed lard or salmon oil” by Flader D, Brandsch C, Hirche F, Eder K.(e)
b. Vitamin D
Vitamin D not only is important to the heart health with calcium supplementation, according to “Systematic review: Vitamin D and calcium supplementation in prevention of cardiovascular event` by Wang L, Manson JE, Song Y, Sesso HD.(Ia) but also plays an vital role in epidemiological associations between vitamin D status and a large number of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, according to “Vitamin D and inflammation” by Guillot X, Semerano L, Saidenberg-Kermanac’h N, Falgarone G, Boissier MC.(I)
c. Omega 3 fatty acids
Omega 3 fatty acids is necessary to maintain the ratio of good and bad cholesterol, thus reducing the risk of cholesterol inflammation according to the study of “In vitro fatty acid enrichment of macrophages alters inflammatory response and net cholesterol accumulation” by Wang S, Wu D, Lamon-Fava S, Matthan NR, Honda KL, Lichtenstein AH., posted in PubMed (IV) and forming of free radical in the heart cells, leading to heart diseases. It also reduces the risk of plaque forming in the arterial wall, thus also decreasing the risk of stoke, according to the study of “N-3 vs. saturated fattyacids: effects on the arterial wall” by by Sudheendran S, Chang CC, Deckelbaum RJ.
d. Anti inflammationIt is said the Omega 3 fatty acids beside reduced the risk of inflammatory effects on our joints and improved blood flow, by regulating the migration of inflammatory cells that cause inflammation, but also autoimmune diseases as a result of the elevation of IL-1 and the proinflammatory leukotriene LTB(4) produced by omega-6 fatty acids, according to the study of “Omega-3 fatty acids in inflammation and autoimmune diseases” by Simopoulos AP.
2. Olive oil(25)
a. Antioxidants and weight loss
In the analyzing the influence of a Mediterranean dietary pattern on plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) found that Mediterranean diet, especially rich in virgin olive oil, is associated with higher levels of plasma antioxidant capacity. Plasma TAC is related to a reduction in body weight after 3 years of intervention in a high cardiovascular risk population with a Mediterranean-style diet rich in virgin olive oil, according to “A 3 years follow-up of a Mediterranean diet rich in virgin olive oil is associated with high plasma antioxidant capacity and reduced body weight gain” by Razquin C, Martinez JA, Martinez-Gonzalez MA, Mitjavila MT, Estruch R, Marti A.(c)
b. Free radical
3. Romaine Lettuce(26)
a. Antineurodegenerative effect
In the investigation of Phenolics extracted in fresh romaine lettuce and its effect on on biological protection for neuron-like PC-12 cells found that total phenolics and total antioxidant capacity of 100 g of fresh romaine lettuce averaged 22.7 mg of gallic acid equivalents and 31.0 mg of vitamin C equivalents, respectively. The phenolic extract of romaine lettuce protected PC-12 cells against oxidative stress caused by H(2)O(2) in a dose-dependent manner. Isochlorogenic acid, one of the phenolics in romaine lettuce, showed stronger neuroprotection than the other three caffeic acid derivatives also found in the lettuce, according to “Antineurodegenerative effect of phenolic extracts and caffeic acid derivatives in romaine lettuce on neuron-like PC-12 cells” by Im SE, Yoon H, Nam TG,Heo HJ, Lee CY, Kim DO.
In the evaluation of phenolic extracts from lettuce (baby, romaine, and iceberg cultivars) and their antioxidants effect found that the antioxidant capacity was linearly correlated with the phenolic content. The results obtained indicate that lettuce byproducts could be, from the industrial point of view, an interesting and cheap source of antioxidant phenolic extracts to funcionalize foodstuffs,according to “Lettuce and chicory byproducts as a source of antioxidant phenolic extracts” by Llorach R, Tomás-Barberán FA, Ferreres F.
Chlorophyll is a green pigment found in almost all plants, algae, and cyanobacteria, including romaine lettuce. It has anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, body cleansing and wound-healing properties, according to the study of “Effects of chlorophyll and chlorophyllin on low-dose aflatoxin B(1) pharmacokinetics in human volunteers” Jubert C, Mata J, Bench G, Dashwood R, Pereira C, Tracewell W, Turteltaub K, Williams D, Bailey G., posted in PubMed (40) researchers wrote that Chlorophyll (Chla) and chlorophyllin (CHL) were shown previously to reduce carcinogen bioavailability, biomarker damage, and tumorigenicity in trout and rats.
a. Antioxidative and Cancer Cell-Inhibiting Activities
In the research of Tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ) plants synthesize nutrients, pigments, and bioactive compounds and their benefit in nutrition and human health found that Tomato extracts promoted growth in normal liver (Chang) cells, had little effect in normal lung (Hel299) cells, mildly inhibited growth of lung cancer (A549) cells, and first promoted and then, at higher concentrations, inhibited growth in lymphoma (U937) cells. The relationship of cell growth to measured constituents was not apparent, according to “Free Amino Acid and Phenolic Contents and Antioxidative and Cancer Cell-Inhibiting Activities of Extracts of 11 Greenhouse-Grown Tomato Varieties and 13 Tomato-Based Foods” by Choi SH, Kim HR, Kim HJ, Lee IS, Kozukue N, Levin CE, Friedman M.
Lycopene, one of the powerful antioxidant in tomatoes, not only helps the immune system in neutralizing the forming of free radicals in the body and according to Harvard investigation as it found that men who ate more than 10 servings tomato-based foods daily (like cooked tomatoes and tomato sauce,) had a 35 percent lower risk of developing prostate cancer than those who ate the least amount of these foods. The benefits of lycopene was more pronounced with advanced stages of prostate cancer. Also according to the study of “Chemoprevention of prostate cancer with lycopene in the TRAMP model” by Konijeti R, Henning S, Moro A, Sheikh A, Elashoff D, Shapiro A, Ku M, Said JW, Heber D, Cohen P, Aronson WJ., posted in PubMed (41)
Tomato is considered as antiseptic natural foods including natural antiseptic agent ascorbic acid that helps to enhance the immune system in guarding our body against the possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction, according to the article of “The 7 Benefits Of Drinking Lemon Water” posted in Simple Health Cures.(42)
5. Calciferous vegetable (such as Cabbage)(28)
a. DNA Damage
Ascorbic acid (AA), known as vitamin C, has important antioxidant vitamin has exerted the activity in preventing (imazalil)IMA-induced cause of DNA damage, according to the stuyd of “The protective role of ascorbic acid on imazalil-induced genetic damage assessed by the cytogenetic tests’ by Türkez H, Aydin E.
b. Omega 3 fatty acid
Cabbage reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases by controlling the secretion of bad cholesterol, due to high amount of Omega 3 fatty acid, according to the study of “The Omega-3 Index as a risk factor forcardiovascular diseases‘ by von Schacky C.(9)
a. Antioxidant Capacity
In the investigation of Blueberry and blackberry wines commercially available in Illinois and theirs potential health benefits, found that fruit wines made fromblueberries and blackberries may have potential health applications and therefore could contribute to the economy of the wine industry. Practical Application: The majority of wines are produced from grapes, but wine can also be produced from other fruits including blueberries and blackberries, which contain phenolic compounds that may contribute to human health, according to “Comparison of Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Capacity of Commercially Available Blueberry and Blackberry Wines in Illinois” by Johnson MH, Gonzalez de Mejia E.
b. DNA Damage
Ascorbic acid (AA), known as vitamin C, has important antioxidant vitamin has exerted the activity in preventing (imazalil)IMA-induced cause of DNA damage, according to the stuyd of “The protective role of ascorbic acid on imazalil-induced genetic damage assessed by the cytogenetic tests’ by Türkez H, Aydin E.(2)
c. Anti inflammatory effects
In a systematic review of the literature was to summarize the literature on the safety and anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin, found that curcumin has been demonstrated to be safe in six human trials and has demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity. It may exert its anti-inflammatory activity by inhibition of a number of different molecules that play a role in inflammation, according to “Safety and anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin: a component of tumeric (Curcuma longa)” by Chainani-Wu N.
In the research of a literature search (PubMed) of almost 1500 papers dealing with curcumin, most from recent years, with ll available abstracts were read and pproximately 300 full papers were reviewed, found that curcumin, a component of turmeric, has been shown to be non-toxic, to have antioxidant activity, and to inhibit such mediators of inflammation as NFkappaB, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), lipooxygenase (LOX), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Significant preventive and/or curative effects have been observed in experimental animal models of a number of diseases, including arteriosclerosis, cancer, diabetes, respiratory, hepatic, pancreatic, intestinal and gastric diseases, neurodegenerative and eye diseases, “Curcumin, an atoxic antioxidant and natural NFkappaB, cyclooxygenase-2, lipooxygenase, and inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor: a shield against acute and chronic diseases” by Bengmark S.
c. Neuroprotective effect
In the finding of the A Potential Neuroprotective Agent in treating Parkinson’s Disease, found that curcumin exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties, crosses the blood-brain barrier and is neuroprotective in neurological disorders. Several studies in different experimental models of PD strongly support the clinical application of curcumin in PD. The current review explores the therapeutic potential of curcumin in PD, according to “Curcumin: A Potential Neuroprotective Agent in Parkinson’s Disease” by Mythri RB, Bharath MS.
8. Ginger (31)
GINGER for OSTEOARTHRITIS:Ginger has a thytochemical called curcumin that helps reduce inflammation. It helps to protect your joints.Before we go further, we would like to remind you of cautions of using Superfood GINGER. While GINGER can help to strengthen anticoagulants such as heparin, warfarin and ticlopidine by helping your blood get less sticky but ginger raises the odd of bleeding.
Garlic to fight COLD and FLU. The natural compoud Allicin is released when garlic is crushed. Allicin works to fight cold, flu and other infections by breaking down into smaller chemicals called Sulfur compounds. They wake up your inmuune system, helping your body to get rid of toxins and microorganisms naturally.
7. Vitamin A, C, E. D.
a. Vitamin A
Vitamin A occurs in the form retinol and is best known for its function in maintaining the health of cell membrane, hair, skin, bone, teeth and eyes. It also plays an important role as an antioxidant as it scavenges free radicals in the lining of the mouth and lungs; prevents its depletion in fighting the increased free radicals activity by radiation; boosts immune system in controlling of free radicals; prevents oxidation of LDL and enhances the productions of insulin pancreas.
b. Vitamin C
Vitamin C beside plays an important role in formation and maintenance of body tissues, it as an antioxidant and water soluble vitamin, vitamin C can be easily carry in blood, operate in much of the part of body. By restoring vitamin E, it helps to fight against forming of free radicals. By enhancing the immune system, it promotes against the microbial and viral and irregular cell growth causes of infection and inflammation.
Vitamin C also is a scavenger in inhibiting pollution cause of oxidation.
c. Vitamin E
Vitamin E is used to refer to a group of fat-soluble compounds that include both tocopherols and tocotrienols discovered by researchers Herbert Evans and Katherine Bishop. It beside is important in protecting muscle weakness, repair damage tissues, lower blood pressure and inducing blood clotting in healing wound, etc, it also is one of powerful antioxidant, by moving into the fatty medium to prevent lipid peroxidation, resulting in lessening the risk of chain reactions by curtailing them before they can starts.
d. Vitamin D
Reseacher found that vitamin D, a group of fat-soluble secosteroids is also a membrane antioxidant, with the ability to inhibit iron-dependent lipid peroxidation in liposomes compared to cholesterol.
C.2. Omega 3 fatty acid
1. Antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anticarcinogenic activities
In the examination of the inhibition of inflammation as well as of cancer formation and growth in the lung and colon in animal models., using a tocopherol mixture that is rich in gamma-T (gamma-TmT, which contains 57%gamma-T), found that when given in the diet at 0.3%, gamma-TmT inhibited chemically induced lung tumorigenesis in the A/J mice as well as the growth of human lung cancer cell H1299 xenograft tumors. gamma-TmT also decreased the levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, gamma-H2AX, and nitrotyrosine in tumors. More evident anti-inflammatory and cancer preventive activities of dietary gamma-TmT were demonstrated in mice treated with azoxymethane and dextran sulfate sodium. These results demonstrate the antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anticarcinogenic activities of tocopherols, according to “Inhibition of inflammation and carcinogenesis in the lung and colon by tocopherols” by Yang CS, Lu G, Ju J, Li GX.
2. Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Activities
In the determination of the antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of proximate composition, amino acids, fatty acids, tocopherols, sterols, glucosinolate and phenolic content in extracts, found that all examined extracts were prominently rich in phenolics and glucosinates, and they showed potent antidiabetic and antihemolytic activity. The present study could be helpful in developing medicinal preparations for the treatment of diabetes and related symptoms, according to “Compositional Studies: Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Activities of Capparis decidua (Forsk.) Edgew” by Zia-Ul-Haq M, Cavar S, Qayum M, Imran I, de Feo V.
3. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities
In the investigation of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions of tocopherols in mice and determination of whether the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) is involved in these activities, indicated that the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of γ-TmT in the colon are mostly due to the direct action of tocopherols in trapping reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, independent of the antioxidant enzymes and anti-inflammatory proteins that are regulated by Nrf2; however, Nrf2 knockout appears to affect the serum levels of tocopherol metabolites, according to “The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of tocopherols are independent of Nrf2 in mice” by Li G, Lee MJ, Liu AB, Yang Z, Lin Y, Shih WJ, Yang CS.
4. Cognitive effects
In the examination of the relation of all plasma vitamin E forms and markers of vitamin E damage (α-tocopherylquinone, 5-nitro-γ-tocopherol) to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Within the AddNeuroMed-Project, plasma tocopherols, tocotrienols, α-tocopherylquinone, and 5-nitro-γ-tocopherol were assessed in 168 AD cases, 166 MCI, and 187 cognitively normal (CN) people, found that compared with cognitively normal subjects, AD and MCI had lower levels of totaltocopherols, total tocotrienols, and total vitamin E. In multivariable-polytomous-logistic regression analysis, both MCI and AD cases had 85% lower odds to be in the highest tertile of total tocopherolsand total vitamin E, and they were, respectively, 92% and 94% less likely to be in the highest tertile of total tocotrienols than the lowest tertile. Further, both disorders were associated with increased vitamin E damage. Low plasma tocopherols and tocotrienols levels are associated with increased odds of MCI and AD, according to “Tocopherols and tocotrienols plasma levels are associated with cognitive impairment” by Mangialasche F, Xu W, Kivipelto M, Costanzi E, Ercolani S, Pigliautile M, Cecchetti R, Baglioni M, Simmons A, Soininen H, Tsolaki M, Kloszewska I, Vellas B, Lovestone S, Mecocci P; AddNeuroMed Consortium.
C. 3. Phytochemicals
1. Allyl Sulfides(21)
a. Immune system
According to the article of “GARLICTHE BOUNTIFUL BULB” by Carmia Borek, Ph.D. posted in Life extension magazine, the author indicated that human studies confirm immune stimulation by garlic. Subjects receiving aged garlic extract at 1800 mg a day for three weeks showed a 155.5% increase in natural killer immune cell activity that kills invaders and cancer cells. Other subjects receiving large amounts of fresh garlic of 35g a day, equivalent to 10 cloves, showed an increase of 139.9%. In six weeks, patients with AIDS receiving aged garlic extract showed an enhancement of natural killer cells from a seriously low level to a normal level.
b. Neurological disease
According to the study of ” Antioxidant Health Effects of Aged Garlic Extract” by Carmia Borek, posted in (Journal of Nutrition. 2001;131:1010S-1015S.)© 2001 The American Society for Nutritional Sciences, researcher indicated that the studies suggest that AGE may have antiaging effects and help in preventing age-related deterioration of brain function that are linked to dementia and Alzheimer’s disease.
c. Antioxidant against oxidation
According to the study of ” Antioxidant Health Effects of Aged Garlic Extract” by Carmia Borek, posted in (Journal of Nutrition. 2001;131:1010S-1015S.)© 2001 The American Society for Nutritional Sciences, researcher found that AGE contains a wide range of antioxidants that can act in synergistic or additive fashion and protect cells against oxidative damage, thus helping to lower the risk of heart disease, stroke, cancer and Alzheimer’s disease and protect against toxic, tissue-damaging effects of ROS-producing radiation, including UV light, drugs used in therapy and chemicals in the environment and industry.
Looking for a natural detox? Allyl Sulfides declare war against toxins. They do this by stimulating the enzymes that eliminate toxins from the body. These enzymes are located in the digestive system. They are part of the normal digestive process. The Allyl Sulfides in onions and garlic simply encourage them to work harder and faster to eliminate toxins.
2. Allyl isothiocyanate(22)
a. Antimicrobial effects
In the investigation of the antimicrobial effect of a chitosan coating+allyl isothiocyanate (AIT) and nisin against Salmonella on whole fresh cantaloupes, showed that The same coating treatment completely inactivated mold and yeast on cantaloupe at day 1 and no regrowth occurred even up to 14days of storage. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that cell membrane damage and leakage of intercellular components occurred as a result of the chitosan-AIT coating treatments. No visual changes in overall appearance and color of cantaloupe rind and flesh due to coating treatments were observed. These results indicate that the application of an antimicrobial coating may be an effective method for decontamination of cantaloupes, according to “Inactivation of Salmonella on whole cantaloupe by application of an antimicrobial coating containing chitosan and allyl isothiocyanate” by Chen W, Jin TZ, Gurtler JB, Geveke DJ, Fan X.
b. Anti-inflammatory effects
In the evaluation of the underlying mechanisms of the potential anti-inflammatory properties of allyl-isothiocyanate (AITC) were analysed in vitro and in vivo, showed that 1. AITC was slightly less potent than sulforaphane (used as a positive control) in down-regulating inflammation in LPS stimulated macrophages. A significant increase in nuclear Nrf2 and heme oxygenase 1 gene expression and only a moderate down-regulation of interleukin 1β and microRNA-155 levels due to AITC was found in mouse liver. Present data suggest that AITC exhibits potent anti-inflammatory activity in cultured macrophages in vitro but has only relatively little anti-inflammatory activity in mice in vivo, according to “Anti-inflammatory potential of allyl-isothiocyanate-role of Nrf2, NFκB and microRNA-155” by Wagner AE, Boesch-Saadatmandi C, Dose J, Schultheiss G, Rimbach G.
c. White Blood Cells (WBCs)
In the investigation of the effects of AITC (dose=20 mg/kg body weight/day for 10 days, subcutaneous: s.c.) on the number of WBCs (total WBCs, lymphocytes, monocyte, neutrophil, basophil and eosinophil) and plasma corticosterone concentrations in adult male rats, showed that administration of AITC decreased significantly the number of total WBCs on days 1-4 post s.c. injection by 25-27%. AITC also decreased the number of lymphocytes on days 1-10 by 21-36% and monocyte on days 1-8 by 28-78%. However, administration of AITC increased the number of neutrophil on days 8-10 by 61-112%. AITC did not change the number of eosinophil and basophil. Plasma corticosterone concentrations during the experimental period were 4.7-8.4 times significantly higher in the AITC group than in the control group, indicating that AITC induced stress-responses, according to “Allyl isothiocyanate-induced changes in the distribution of white blood cells in rats” by Imaizumi K, Sato S, Sakakibara Y, Mori S, Ohkuma M, Kawashima Y, Ban T, Sasaki H, Tachiyashiki K.